Index der menschlichen Entwicklung
Beurteilung der Entwicklung nach dem Bruttoinlandsprodukt. Eine Ontologie des Konkreten Röck, Tina.
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Am J Clin Pathol. Pattern of necrosis in acute viral hepatitis. Prognostic value of bridging subacute hepatic necrosis. N Engl J Med. Chronic active liver disease. The range of histologic lesions, their response to treatment, and evolution.
False neurotransmitters and hepatic failure. Acute hepatic necrosis and fulminant hepatic failure. Long term follow-up studies of patients surviving fluminant viral hepatitis. Unusual features of viral hepatitis in Accra, Ghana. A clustering of cases. A classification of chronic hepatitis. Chronic liver disease in asymptomatic narcotic addicts. Talc granulomata in liver disease in narcotic addicts.
Hepatic dysfunction in heroin addicts. The role of alcohol. Asymptomatic hapatic disease in blood donors with hepatitis B antigenemia. On the molecular pathology of ischemic renal cell death. Reversible and irreversible cellular and mitochondrial metabolic alterations.
Galactosamine induced liver injury. Ultrastructural features in galactosamine-induced hepatitis. Metabolic activation of drugs to toxic substances. Adult herpes simplex hepatitis. Electron microscopy of the hepatocellular and Kupffer-cell lesions of mouse hepatitis, with particular reference to the effect of cortisone.
Pathogenesis of chronic disease associated with persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis viral infection. Relationship of antibody production to disease in neonatally infected mice. Fatal complications of virus hepatitis in two patients with agammaglobulinemia. Tissue localization of Australia antigen immune complexes in acute and chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis.
Immunoglobulin deposition in liver of patients with active chronic hepatitis and antibody against smooth muscle. The pathogenesis of arthritis associated with viral hepatitis. Glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis-B surface antigen immune complexes in children. Cell-mediated immune reactivity to hepatitis B surface antigen in liver diseases. Also known as text variation selector in prior versions of this specification.
Also known as emoji variation selector in prior versions of this specification. For more details about emoji modifiers, see Section 2. See also Annex B: Valid Emoji Flag Sequences.
A singleton Regional Indicator character is called an ill-formed emoji flag sequence. Valid Emoji Tag Sequences. A sequence of tag characters that is not part of a emoji tag sequence is called an ill-formed emoji tag sequence. For recommendations on the use of variation selectors in emoji sequences, see Section 2. Emoji Properties and Data Files. The composition of these sets may change from one release to the next. RGI emoji flag sequence set — The specific set of emoji sequences listed in the emoji-sequences.
RGI emoji tag sequence set — The specific set of emoji sequences listed in the emoji-sequences. The formal names are immutable internal identifiers, but often do not reflect the current practice for interpretation of the character. The emoji properties are stable for each version of the data—they will not change for that version. They may, however, change between that version and a subsequent version.
Casing operations may produce invalid variation sequences. The following EBNF can be used to scan for possible emoji, which can then be verified by performing validity tests according to the definitions.
It is much simpler than the expressions currently in the definitions. It includes a superset of emoji as a by-product of that simplicity, but the extras can be weeded out by validity tests. From these EBNF rules a regex can be generated, as below. While this regex may seem complex, it is far simpler than what would result from the definitions. Direct use of the definitions would result in regex expressions which are many times more complicated, and yet still require verification with validity tests.
An implementation claiming conformance to this specification shall identify the version of this specification to which conformance is claimed. An implementation claiming conformance to this specification shall identify which of the capabilities specified below are supported for which emoji sets ED through ED This must include at least the C2a display capability for set ED basic emoji set. For example, an implementation can declare that it supports the display , editing and input capabilities for the basic emoji set , and the display and editing capabilities for the emoji modifier sequence set , and may make no claim of capabilities for any other sets.
An implementation may claim partial conformance to C2, specifying the set of characters that it does not support. An implementation may support any of the following for display , editing, or input:. Implementations can claim conformance for emoji collation or short names by conforming to a particular version of CLDR.
Implementers should note that intermediate versions of Emoji might be released between major versions of the Unicode Standard, such as an Emoji Version For example, such an intermediate version might add RGI sequences. The following table shows the corresponding Emoji and Unicode Standard versions, up to Version Unicode characters can have many different presentations as text.
An "a" for example, can look quite different depending on the font. Emoji characters can have two main kinds of presentation:.
More precisely, a text presentation is a simple foreground shape whose color which is determined by other information, such as setting a color on the text, while an emoji presentation determines the color s of the character, and is typically multicolored. In other words, when someone changes the text color in a word processor, a character with an emoji presentation will not change color. Any Unicode character can be presented with a text presentation, as in the Unicode charts.
For the emoji presentation, both the name and the representative glyph in the Unicode chart should be taken into account when designing the appearance of the emoji, along with the images used by other vendors. The shape of the character can vary significantly. Deviating too far from that core shape can cause interoperability problems: Direction whether a person or object faces to the right or left, up or down should also be maintained where possible, because a change in direction can change the meaning: General-purpose emoji for people and body parts should also not be given overly specific images: This includes the emoji modifier base characters listed in Sample Emoji Modifier Bases.
The emoji modifiers allow for variations in skin tone to be expressed. For more information, see Section 2. However, other color words in the name, such as YELLOW, typically provide a recommendation as to the emoji presentation, which should be followed to avoid interoperability problems.
Emoji characters may not always be displayed on a white background. They are often best given a faint, narrow contrasting border to keep the character visually distinct from a similarly colored background. Thus a Japanese flag would have a border so that it would be visible on a white background, and a Swiss flag have a border so that it is visible on a red background.
Current practice is for emoji to have a square aspect ratio, deriving from their origin in Japanese. For interoperability, it is recommended that this practice be continued with current and future emoji. They will typically have about the same vertical placement and advance width as CJK ideographs. Flag emoji characters are discussed in Annex B: Combining enclosing marks may be applied to emoji, just like they can be applied to other characters.
When that is done, the combination should take on an emoji presentation. Systems are unlikely, however, to support arbitrary combining marks with arbitrary emoji. The set of supported emoji sequences may vary by platform.
For example, take the following emoji zwj sequence:. However, if that combination is not supported as a single unit, it may show up as a sequence like the following, and the user sees no indication that it was meant to be composed into a single image:. Implementations could provide an indication of the composed nature of an unsupported emoji sequence where possible. This gives users the additional information that that sequence was intended to have a composed form.
It also explains why the sequence will not behave as separate elements: The following is an example of an approach that implementations can use. There are other approaches that could have a more intuitive appearance, but that could be difficult to implement with current text display mechanisms. They intentionally contrast with other characters. This list may change in the future if new explicit-gender characters are added, or if some of these are changed to be gender-neutral.
The names below are the CLDR short names. Other than the above list, human-form emoji should normally be depicted in a gender-neutral way unless gender appearance is explicitly specified using an emoji ZWJ sequence in one of the ways shown in the following table. Although the human-form emoji used in sign format type ZWJ sequences are supposed to have gender-neutral appearance by themselves when not used in a sign format type ZWJ sequence , for historical reasons many vendors depict these human-form emoji as a man or woman, so they have the same appearance as one of the sign format type ZWJ sequences.
Currently, most vendors depict detective as man detective and person getting haircut as woman getting haircut , but some vendors depict police officer as man police officer while others depict it as woman police officer.
Gender-neutral versions of the profession or role emoji using object format type ZWJ sequences would be promulgated by adding them to the RGI emoji tag sequence set. People all over the world want to have emoji that reflect more human diversity, especially for skin tone. Five symbol modifier characters that provide for a range of skin tones for human emoji were released in Unicode Version 8. These characters are based on the six tones of the Fitzpatrick scale, a recognized standard for dermatology there are many examples of this scale online, such as FitzpatrickSkinType.
The exact shades may vary between implementations. These characters have been designed so that even where diverse color images for human emoji are not available, readers can see the intended meaning.
When used alone, the default representation of these modifier characters is a color swatch. Whenever one of these characters immediately follows certain characters such as WOMAN , then a font should show the sequence as a single glyph corresponding to the image for the person s or body part with the specified skin tone, such as the following:. This may fall back to a black and white stippled or hatched image such as when colorful emoji are not supported.
When a human emoji is not immediately followed by a emoji modifier character, it should use a generic, non-realistic skin tone, such as RGB FFCC22 one of the colors typically used for the smiley faces.
No particular hair color is required, however, dark hair is generally regarded as more neutral because black or dark brown hair is widespread among people of every skin tone. To have an effect on an emoji, an emoji modifier must immediately follow that base emoji character. Emoji presentation selectors are neither needed nor recommended for emoji characters when they are followed by emoji modifiers, and should not be used in newly generated emoji modifier sequences; the emoji modifier automatically implies the emoji presentation style.
However, some older data may include defective emoji modifier sequences in which an emoji presentation selector does occur between the base emoji character and the emoji modifier; this is the only exception to the rule that an emoji modifier must immediately follow the character that it modifies. In this case the emoji presentation selector should be ignored. For handling text presentation selectors in sequences, see Section 4 Presentation Style.
Any other intervening character causes the emoji modifier to appear as a free-standing character. The basic solution for each of these cases is to represent the multi-person grouping as a sequence of characters—a separate character for each person intended to be part of the grouping, along with characters for any other symbols that are part of the grouping.
Each person in the grouping could optionally be followed by an emoji modifier. This makes use of conventions already found in current emoji usage, in which certain sequences of characters are intended to be displayed as a single unit. Implementations can present the emoji modifiers as separate characters in an input palette, or present the combined characters using mechanisms such as long press. The emoji modifiers are not intended for combination with arbitrary emoji characters.
Instead, they are restricted to the emoji modifier base characters: This set may change over time, with successive versions of this document. Sample Emoji Modifier Bases. The following chart shows the expected display with emoji modifiers, depending on the preceding character and the level of support for the emoji modifier. If an emoji modifier base has no skin visible on a particular system, then any following emoji modifier should be suppressed.
Expected Emoji Modifiers Display. As noted above at the end of Section 2. However, older data may include defective emoji modifier sequences which do include emoji presentation selectors. A supported emoji modifier sequence should be treated as a single grapheme cluster for editing purposes cursor moment, deletion, and so on ; word break, line break, and so on. For input, the composition of that cluster does not need to be apparent to the user: On a phone, for example, a long-press on a human figure can bring up a minipalette of different skin tones, without the user having to separately find the human figure and then the modifier.
The following shows some possible appearances:. Of course, there are many other types of diversity in human appearance besides different skin tones: Different hair styles and color, use of eyeglasses, various kinds of facial hair, different body shapes, different headwear, and so on.
It is beyond the scope of Unicode to provide an encoding-based mechanism for representing every aspect of human appearance diversity that emoji users might want to indicate. The best approach for communicating very specific human images—or any type of image in which preservation of specific appearance is very important—is the use of embedded graphics, as described in Longer Term Solutions. To the user of such a system, these behave like single emoji characters, even though internally they are sequences.
When an emoji zwj sequence is sent to a system that does not have a corresponding single glyph, the ZWJ characters are ignored and a fallback sequence of separate emoji is displayed. The use of ZWJ sequences may be difficult in some implementations, so caution should taken before adding new sequences. For recommendations on the use of variation selectors in ZWJ sequences, see Section 2.
This section describes important implementation features of emoji, including the use of emoji and text presentation selectors, how to do segmentation, and handling of tag characters. Emoji with glyphs that face to the right or left may face either direction, according to vendor practice. However, that inconsistency can cause a change in meaning when exchanging text across platforms.
The following ZWJ mechanism can be used to explicitly indicate direction. The sequences recommended for general interchange RGI are listed in the data files. When representing emoji ZWJ sequences for an individual person, the following order should be used:. There are different ways to count the emoji in Unicode, especially since sequences of emoji may appear as single emoji image.
The following provides an overview of the ways to count emoji. Publication Statistics Publication History Selected Publishers 17 Ariston-Verl. About Personal Information Gender: Female Nationality or associated country: External Links Wikipedia - https: Send us a comment. Dreams, evolution and value fulfillment.