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The research works so far have been made by the different scholars of sociology and social anthropology had given much emphasis on the changing social relations of workers. For Gandhi the village, which is self-sufficient, was the pillar on which this country stands. Statement of Problem Prevailing daily wages in the tea plantations of West Bengal is Rs , whereas prescribed minimum wages for unskilled agricultural workers is Rs According to Tiwari, the same liberalization that is driving India's growth is breaking the farmers' backs.
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They argued that since there was equal employment of male and female workers it implied that there were two earners in the family, hence the units should be 1. Meanwhile the union government had announced that if there was unanimity in decisions in any wage board the recommendations would be implemented immediately.
If there was no unanimity in a wage board, the government would not implement any of the awards. This put most workers in a vulnerable position because if they opposed unjustified suggestions of the employers they would not get anything. Hence in most cases the wage boards tried to reach unanimity in their decisions. This invariably put the management in a strong bargaining position.
This is exactly what happened in the wage board for the tea plantation industry. Since the employers refused to budge from their demand of including 1. Low wages were built into the system and the workers were helpless in this regard. Wages in tea plantations in India and particularly in West Bengal. Table 1 presents the existing wages in five major tea producing States of India. Table 1 Daily rate of wages in major tea producing States In three Southern States, wages are declared through minimum wage notifications and wage settlements fall outside the purview of collective bargaining.
In Assam and West Bengal, on the other hand, wages are determined through collective bargaining. But plantation does figure in the minimum wage schedule as evident in the synopsis of minimum wages , Govt. Corresponding to tea plantation row it is written that wages are determined through agreement. Daily wages of plantation in West Bengal was Rs 95 in December whereas the minimum wage for even unskilled agricultural work was Rs as given in the synopsis.
In Assam and West Bengal, wage is determined through collective bargaining mechanism in a tripartite forum. But it is pitiful that such labour market institution leads to abysmally low wages. In this context it becomes important to understand why wages and conditions of work are poor for the plantation workers in the Tea sector of West Bengal and Assam. Employers but argue that plantations workers get many benefits apart from monetary wages as the planters are expected to adhere to the Plantation labour Act These are statutory in nature and outcome of legislation enacted in view of special working conditions in plantations.
Moreover, even if one adds the monetary equivalent of such welfare provisions, wages as received by plantations workers stand significantly below that of wages in similar employment category. Wage agreement signed in the month of February , wages were enhanced by Rs Accordingly, wage would increase to Rs As per the tripartite Memorandum of Settlement dated 20 February between the tea managements and representatives of trade unions, the nominal wage at the end of each period along with incremental wage hike is showed below Table 2.
Table 2 Memorandum of Settlement dated 20 February Daily rate of wages for tea plantation workers in West Bengal is extremely minimum in comparison to other tea producing states in India except Assam.
In west Bengal, wage is determined through collective bargaining. Jammu itself is Hindu majority but is part of the same Indian state as neighboring Kashmir, where India is fighting Muslim separatists — which is what worries the New Delhi government. The ruling right-wing Bharatiya Janata Party in Jammu has sought court orders to evict them from the state. One business group threatened to kill the Rohingya if they were not moved.
Last week a dead cow was found near a Rohingya settlement on the edge of Jammu city. According to Shafi Alam, a Rohingya who arrived in , Hindu activists torched shanties accusing them of killing the cow — a creature sacred to Hindus.
They say they would rather suffer there than return to the hell of their former lives in Myanmar. The residents include Mohammad Salimullah, a grocery store owner and one of two Rohingya petitioners challenging the government at the Supreme Court. In Nepal, about Rohingya live in a slum of shacks in northern Kathmandu, anxiously awaiting news of relatives fleeing Rakhine.
My mahout for the day introduced me to Chancahal my tremendous, thick-trunked friend for the day, or haati, as referred to in Hindi. She was a circus rescue from northern India, unwanted for being blind and having cataracts. Like other Asian elephants, she has a series of spots on her trunk and neck. The first thing we did was feed her. For this task, I began learning some of the 36 words in elephant language. She would curl her trunk and extend it to receive the tasty stalks.
She listened quite well and seemed more than pleased with this meal. The sound of her chomping was captivating; though it was the sight of her munching that drew me in most. She would grab the grass with her curled trunk, and eventually place it in her mouth, guiding it deeper inside and exposing her thick tongue while graciously flapping her ears with each crunch.