KMUs zeigen sich beunruhigt über Konkurrenzdruck und schwache Verbrauchernachfrage
In this presentation a method will be shown that uses the parameter confidence and a Monte Carlo simulation to quantify the risks that arise from this uncertainty. Therefore, a method will be developed that provides support to the responsible persons of the respective production ramp-up to calculate the necessary manpower for every single ramp-up phase and to realize the economic optimum. Diese zeigen, dass KMUs grundsätzlich optimistisch gestimmt sind, jedoch viel Potential in neuen Kundensegmenten sowie bei der Senkung von Kosten sehen. Individual adaptation makes sense in many cases in order to exploit the advantages of the respective location in an optimum manner. This can, however, often not be realized due to product-related specifications or strategic orientations.
Synonyme und Antonyme von feather-bed auf Englisch im Synonymwörterbuch
Business Capabilities are used to describe the planned added value and the abilities of the existing nodes own sites or partners within the network, without having to define used technologies and resources. A matching of Business Capabilities needed for the planned added value and of Business Capabilities provided by potential nodes, allows an assignment of added value content to these nodes.
On node level and thereby decentralized the Business Capabilities can be combined with suitable technologies and resources. This combination is defined as Value Added Module. By composing needed Business Capabilities or Value Added Modules, different network alternatives can be configured and compared.
These alternatives of the Value Added Network can be evaluated based upon a predefined target system. The article presents the concept of Business Capabilities and an outlook to a supporting IT-solution. In order to guarantee those stable process chains, manufacturing processes have to be controlled and continuously improved by an effective and fast interfering operational quality assurance that is adapted to the micro-specific framework.
Since tolerances of micro-structured parts are in the micro- and sub-micrometer range, geometric measurement results have to meet high requirements in terms of precision and reliability. Therefore, in order to control manufacturing processes in micro production based on measurement data the increased importance of measurement uncertainty and measurement variation has to be considered. Measurement data show an interference of measurement and manufacturing distribution and can lead to wrong decisions when deciding whether the micro manufacturing process is in or out of control.
Thus, the focus of the paper lies on continuously monitoring, controlling and separating measurement and manufacturing variation in a flexible, simple and reliable manner. The paper shows the application of the statistical resampling technique called "TheJackknife" to compute uncertainties of measurement results in coordinate metrology,introduced by the reduction of a point cloud to an ideal substitute geometry.
Inaddition, a method is proposed which uses the computed Jackknife data to analyze theinfluence of single touch points on the measurement result. Exemplary, the procedureis applied to a point cloud of a 2-dimensional circle. For the measurement of micro mechanical workpieces multi-sensor coordinate measurement machines are widely used due to their flexibility. Because of this flexibility many decisions regarding the measurement strategy have to be made.
The planning process demands a lot of knowledge and experience from the user. This is especially true for the measurement of micro structures, since many effects need to be considered. In this talk challenges in micro coordinate metrology and solutions to support the user during the planning process are presented. This paper outlines a threefold methodological approach integrating dimensional measurement, virtual tests of measured real gears and physical tests of real gears.
As a demonstrator for the presented methodology high-loadable microgears made of zirconium oxide are used. Due to the higher number of significant influencing factors microstructure, temperature etc. With regard to micro cutting, the roundness of the cutting edge and microstructure properties of the machined material have a great impact on the achievable surface quality.
In case of sequential removal the cutting process affects surface layers that, other than the base material, are already hardened from a former removal process. Only traditional control charts will detect process shifts e. Therefore, a control loop that adaptively adjusts the process parameters to the changed surrounding conditions for each cycle is required. By using an extended Victor-Kienzle model, the improvement in surface quality through control of the cutting force, cutting edge radius and cutting speed is shown empirically.
Small and medium-sized companies encounter enormous difficulties when trying to implement so-called lean methods according to the role model of the Toyota Production System. This is caused by the varying effects of lean methods on production figures depending on the production conditions concerning product variety and volumes, variation of process and set-up times etc.
This article shows an approach to analyze and evaluate the influence of lean methods in small series productions based on quantified interdependencies with the relevant production figures. This paper describes a methodology for comprehensive procurement market selection for sourcing from low-cost countries. The basic novelty of this approach consists in allocating potential procurement markets for specific procurement objects matching the capabilities and requirements of the buying company in question.
The methodology includes four major steps: First, profiles of the potential procurement markets, the objects to be purchased and the buying company are generated.
Then, the interdependencies and cause-effect relationships of the criteria of these three profiles are analysed. Afterwards, the allocation is completed by two comparisons based on the delta values of each criterion of procurement market and object and procurement market and company, respectively. This serves to verify the congruence between market and company and between market and procurement object. Finally, the countries are ranked by procurement object suitability and company suitability.
This paper presents an approach to the dynamic optimization of the preventive maintenance schedule for machine tool components during operation based on the actual operating life and the respective load profile. Furthermore, the effect of the dynamic optimization on component selection for different maintenance strategies is taken into consideration.
The ideal strategy can be selected from corrective, preventive and condition-based maintenance for every component of acomplex system. Equipping highly integrated production facilitieswith robust components and monitoring functions combinedwith the applicable technical services contributes significantlyto guaranteeing machine reliability. In this context, bindingreliability predictions are demanded within the scope ofreliability-based warranty contracts, life cycle cost-driven bidsor service contracts.
This article presents an approach whichaims at analyzing and predicting the reliability of machinesand their components depending on load that is applied. Thisresearch focuses on fatigue failures, caused in componentsunder the influence of fluctuating loads. However, the mainmethodology can be applied with some modifications to otherfailure modes as well. By integrating suitable methods andinformation from different sources, this approach helps toachieve a more accurate reliability analysis and predictionwhen very little field data is available.
Additionally, the operators of production facilitiesgain a greater level of certainty in production planning, in thescheduling of preventive maintenance activities and inplanning the provision and storage of necessary spare parts. In order to stay competitive in the globalizing markets with fast changing conditions and requirements, small and medium sized enterprises aim to implement methods and tools of the lean production philosophy, which already lead to enormous efficiency improvements in large companies.
But these lean methods cannot easily be transferred as they have a different impact on the production system depending on the existing circumstances. The analysis and quantification of these interdependencies is subject of the current research work at the Institute of Production Science wbk in Karlsruhe. Using material flow simulation and parametric optimization, efficient combinations of lean methods for small batch productions can be determined under consideration of different target systems.
This approach of the simulation-based optimization of small batch productions applying lean methods is explained in the following article. The wbk Institute of Production Science at the Universität Karlsruhe TH developed a new approach which ensures that the product design meets the requirements of the supplier. This paper identifies the factors influencing the design, deduces basic principles and illustrates guidelines for an adapted product design.
In coordinate metrology results are based on a set of probed points from the workpiece surface, which are evaluated with the use of ideal substitute geometries. Shape deviations of the workpiece lead to non-uniform influence of single points on the result.
In the article, a method to analyze the influence of single measurement points on the result and to compute the uncertainty of the evaluation is proposed. This technique allows the bias and standard error of the measurand to be estimated. The outcome is analyzed with computer simulations, whose results are presented in this article. Many companies decide to opt for procurement markets of low-cost countries hoping to benefit from considerable regional differences in factor costs and from lower wages in particular.
But not every procurement object can be successfully purchased from low-cost countries. In many cases, the procuring companies are faced with quality issues or costs way beyond the estimate. The outcome mostly depends on the technical characteristics of the respective product. This is a main challenge of low-cost country sourcing resulting from a poor selection of procurement objects. The basic novel approach developed at the Institute of Production Science wbk of the Universität Karlsruhe TH consists in the identification of factors affecting the selection of procurement objects.
These factors are then used as a basis for the development of principles for the selection of procurement objects offering the best potential in terms of quality and project outcome when sourced from low-cost countries.
According to recent investigations the sale of spare parts is a considerable key business in the after-sales market. In the machine building industry the profit margins of the service and spare parts business exceed the classical product business by a factor of ten. To reduce the probability of cost-intensive breakdowns a constant availability of spare parts is necessary. The earning potentials in the after-sales market can only be exploited if customers are supplied with specific spare parts within stipulated reaction times.
However especially in the machine building industry, the factors that influence the demand forecast of spare parts are diverse. The high number of models and variants of the machines and the simultaneously small number of sold units complicate an accurate prediction. Furthermore, the service life of single components is influenced to a great extend by different and variable loads depending on the production processes. Hence, most companies have to maintain high and expensive spare parts inventories to assure a certain availability.
The presented approach aims at analyzing and predicting the service life of components depending on the load that is applied. This information is combined with logistic aspects such as delivery times or stock strategies. By using the approach, it is possible to predict the demand of spare parts more accurately.
Cost optimal strategies for the provision of spare parts can be developed and evaluated. This helps companies to reduce their expensive inventories of spare parts. Manufacturers increasingly integrate the suppliers of their production equipment into their maintenance activities in order to improve the reliability and availability of their machinery. This forces suppliers to increase their knowledge of the failure behavior of their products. However, the failure data delivered to them by their customers often lacks information about the operational conditions of the machine tools.
Since these operational conditions are highly variable and have a large impact on the reliability of the machines, it is important to gain knowledge of them. The approach being presented uses the Mixed Weibull and the Cumulative Damage models to estimate the different operational conditions from mixed failure data and uses field data collected from a machine tool component.
Aufgrund steigender Kundenanforderungen und kürzer werdender Produktinnovationszyklen wachsen die Teilevielfalt und damit die Komplexität der Ersatzteilversorgung im Maschinen- und Anlagenbau zunehmend an. Häufige Folgen dieser Entwicklung sind Überbestände, hohe Kapitalbindungskosten und teure Verschrottungsaktionen, um hohe Fehlmengenkosten und Konventionalstrafen bei Produktionsausfällen zu vermeiden. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist es notwendig, die Lebensdauer hochwertiger Komponente in Abhängigkeit ihrer betriebsbedingten Belastungen zu ermitteln, um rechtzeitig das geeignete Ersatzteil bei einem Ausfall bereitstellen zu können.
Im Rahmen eines umfassenden Ersatzteilmanagements ermöglicht die ausfallgerechte Bereitstellung von bestimmten Ersatzteilen eine hohe Ersatzteildisponibilität bei gleichzeitiger Realisierung von Einsparpotentialen. Due to increasing globalization, customer demands and resource constraints companies are facing growing time, cost and flexibility pressures.
This forces them to enter into new forms of organization and cooperation: Value Added Networks consisting of different locations of one company but also including external partners and suppliers are emerging.
The challenge is to configure these production networks, to run them economically and to identify and realize potentials for optimization. This article describes an integrated concept for the evaluation of these Value Added Network alternatives to find the best, robust solution for the network configuration concerning the implied dynamics and uncertainties.
Therefore a target system consisting of relevant objectives like cost, time, quality or flexibility has to be identified. This target system has to conform to the strategy of the configured Value Added Network e. As these targets can be contradictory, methods for multi-criteria optimization have to be applied. To reach a high robustness of the network the approach combines a Monte-Carlo simulation and sensitivity analyses to assess and quantify the possible influences.
This research introduces a method to identify shape deviations of the workpiece and errors in the probing process in coordinate metrology by analyzing the observed measurement points. The approach is based on the statistical analysis of distances between points in the point cloud.
Furthermore, the influence of single measurement points is taken into account by quantifying their effect on the result. In the article, the method is explained thoroughly and its application with actual measurement data from a micro-structured workpiece is presented. Realizing cost saving potentials represents one of the main motives of low-cost country sourcing.
The development and qualification of suitable suppliers in these countries though is an expensive and long-term process. Furthermore, low-cost country sourcing incurs higher risks than procuring in the home country as exchange rates, wages and transport costs as well as material costs are subject to changes.
The development of a supplier relationship in a low-cost country therefore carries investment risks and can be considered a multi-stage investment project with uncertainties. This article is aimed at the representation of a model developed at the wbk Institute of Production Science, Universität Karlsruhe TH , for the investment-oriented valuation of supplier development expenditure in low-cost countries on the basis of the real option theory.
Mere cost appraisals and flexibility assessments will no longer suffice to design and plan production systems over their life cycle. In addition, the effect of influencing factors subject to indeterminate variations needs to be included the evaluation, and their impact on production costs is to be made transparent.
To achieve a better planning basis in the future, the influence of uncertainties must be reduced and at the same time the prognosis exactness of the calculated costs must be improved.
For a superior illustration of the influence of uncertainties, a purely deterministic approach is no longer effectual. Hence, the flexibility and, therefore, the resistance of a production system to market and product specific changes are determined stochastically within this article. A challenging task for a systematic quality assurance is the characterization of micro gears via metrology.
Additional factors in micrometer dimensions such as significant shape deviations of the produced micro gears increase the complexity. This paper describes an approach for a three-dimensional surface characterization of the tooth flanks of micro gears. A three-dimensional point of view defines the functionally relevant tooth flanks as a surface in contrast to the common definition via two-dimensional characteristics.
Additionally, this paper describes how these flank characterizations will then be used for matching micro gears afflicted with shape deviations for functioning gearings. In this paper results concerning the quality of micro gears made via dimensional metrology and functional testing are discussed and compared.
Thus, possible effects of geometrical deviations on the function can be identified and possible interrelations between standard characteristics like profile deviations and the tangential composite deviation can be indicated and analyzed. This paper presents the the process chain and the ongoing research activities aiming to increase the accuracy of the contour of the manufactured profiles.
More and more companies are using lean production methods in order to improve their processes and stay competitive. Due to the fact that lean methods have different impacts on production systems depending on existing characteristics and conditions, they have to be successfully adapted to the specific requirements.
This paper shows a transparent structure of interdependencies between lean methods and relevant production figures developed at the Institute of Production Science wbk , Universität Karlsruhe TH , Germany. Besides, it discusses a methodology for the simulation-based analysis and optimization of production systems by lean methods serving as forecasting tool for an efficient planning process.
The requests for production systems are changing constantly as a consequence of increasing competitive pressure. Hence, evaluation methods are becoming more and more important. In addition, the effect of influencing factors subject to indeterminate variations needs to be included in the evaluation, and their impact on production costs is to be made transparent.
The flexibility and, therefore, the robustness of a production system to market and product specific changes are essential for the economic success of a company. Especially in the early stage of the product development the knowledge about the required flexibility of a production system is of utmost importance. Within this approach an evaluation method is illustrated which allows a quantitative assessment of the flexibility in the early planning stages.
How and where in micromanufacturing process chains the functionally relevant dimensional features of micromechanical components are measured and with which measuring devices is a problem with which manufacturers currently have little experience solving. The goal of this paper is to present a method for determining the optimal quality control plan to assure the quality of dimensional features of micromechanical components with respect to the scrap rate of the production process, the type I and type II errors of the inspection process and the necessary time and cost of inspections.
The aforementioned criteria on which the selection of the optimal quality control plan is based are detailed and an object-oriented model of the manufacturing process chain is presented in this paper.
Due to the combinatorial nature of this problem and the desire to consider the multiple objectives independently, a population-based metaheuristic approach is proposed to search for the set of Pareto optimal quality control plans with respect to the defined objectives.
Geprägt durch den zunehmenden Wettbewerb fordern die Kunden des Maschinen- und Anlagenbaus verstärkt die Garantie ausgewählter Produktleistungsparameter wie z. Zuverlässigkeit und Verfügbarkeit sowie bestimmter Lebenszykluskostenelemente als wesentliche Qualitätsmerkmale von Investitionsgütern. Dies bietet den Maschinenherstellern die Chance, den höheren Preis der eigenen Produkte im Vergleich zu den Konkurrenzprodukten aus low-cost Ländern durch die Objektivierung der Produktleistung zu rechtfertigen.
Life Cycle Performance zu entwickeln. Herausforderungen bestehen vor allem hinsichtlich der stochastischen Natur der Zuverlässigkeit technischer Systeme, der Modellierung der Maschinenbelastung sowie der mathematischen Bestimmung des Abschätzungsfehlers von Zuverlässigkeitsprognosen. Diesen Herausforderungen stellt sich ein Forschungskonsortium, bestehend aus vier kleinen und mittelständischen Unternehmen des Maschinen- und Anlagenbaus, dem Institut für Produktionstechnik wbk und der Forschungsgemeinschaft Qualität e.
Die Qualitätssicherung mikromechanischer Bauteile sieht sich drei zentralen Herausforderungen gegenüber: Zur Bewältigung dieser Herausforderungen werden drei Methoden vorgestellt. Die hohe Prozessvariabilität eines einzelnen Fertigungsprozesses wird durch einen modellbasierten prädiktiven Regler reduziert. Die Trennung von Fertigungs- und Messstreuung für eine statistische Prozesskontrolle wird durch ein neues multivariates Qualitätsregelkartendesign ermöglicht.
Darüberhinaus werden Richtlinien zur Erstellung einer mikroprozesskettenoptimalen Prüfstrategie durch Axiomatic Design entwickelt. Um diese Richtlinien zu verifizieren und um neue Erkenntnisse zu gewinnen, werden die Ergebnisse mit denen einer multikriteriellen Optimierung der Prüfstrategie verglichen.
A global set-up of production sites and suppliers in an increasingly globalised world provides huge opportunities for companies, such as the development of new markets or the reduction of production costs. In spite of these advantages and the desire of companies to make full use of them, global production has not been mastered so far and its potential has not yet been fully tapped.
Global production often results in quality issues or unexpectedly high costs. The technical features of the product to be manufactured have a major impact on whether global production will be successful or not. This article aims at presenting an approach to tapping the potential of low-cost countries by tailoring product design to local needs and, at the same time, to reducing entrepreneurial risks. Due to the increasing demand for extended warranties and the increasing popularity of preventive maintenance for investment goods, the importance of dependable reliability figures has increased.
Reliability figures tend to be more dependable when more failure data are used to obtain them. The low availability of data, however, is a key problem in reliability analysis in the investment goods industry.
Reliability figures obtained from only a small amount of failure data can be given only with uncertainty. This uncertainty needs to be assessed. In this presentation a method will be shown that uses the parameter confidence and a Monte Carlo simulation to quantify the risks that arise from this uncertainty. Furthermore, it is shown how this method can be integrated in warranty prognosis and the optimization of preventive maintenance for investment goods. Low-cost country sourcing LCCS offers the opportunity to considerably save costs and enter new attractive markets.
In order to tap the potential of low-cost country sourcing successfully, the barriers and challenges coming with it need to be systematically specified and the procurement structures must be oriented towards LCCS. This paper will analyze and categorize the barriers and challenges which are given in literature. Based on this literary analysis, this paper will give recommendations on how to implement different aspects of low-cost country sourcing.
The results of a practical example from industry will finally be presented. Recently, an increasing number of customers of the machine tool industry have applied life cycle costing LCC to compare the cost-effectiveness of different investment options.
These concepts have mainly been used to address maintenance costs since these have proven to be one of the most important cost drivers. The approach of life cycle performance LCP broadens LCC by considering the relationship between the costs and benefits of a machine over its entire life cycle. With the increasing importance of environmental consciousness, it has become crucial to incorporate environmental impact when evaluating machines. A framework is presented that enables the integration of green manufacturing principles into LCP-evaluation.
The role of interoperability within this framework is also discussed. The development of a new supplier relationship in a low-cost country carries investment risks and can be considered a multi-stage investment project with uncertainties.
In turn, the buying company can make use of its flexibility within the project, e. This paper presents a real options model developed at the wbk Institute of Production Science to valuate a supplier development under risks and flexibility. Due to a continuous valuation in the presented methodology the forecast uncertainty is decreased significantly.
Finally, the methodology is validated by a case study which illustrates a supplier development in South Korea by a global OEM. The selection of a suitable measurement strategy for micro-dimensional quality features is a task which requires considerable expertise and experience.
To aid technicians with the appropriate selection of a sensor and its parameter settings for a given measurement task, this article presents an experience-based user support system.
The support system can lead to improved measurement results while also decreasing the necessary time and effort for the inspection planning process. Micro gears are characterized by shape deviations caused by micro manufacturing processes, which operate close to physical limits.
This paper presents an approach to match micro gears which are afflicted with shape deviations. The approach consists of a geometrical part that couples the dimensional characterization of the tooth flank of a micro gear with a matching simulation and a functional part in which functionally relevant characteristics are derived from functional testing.
Today, etended warranties are increasingly popular in the machine tools industry. But weak failure data and time varying loads make it difficult for machine tool manufacturers to estimate the costs and the risks of such warranties. This paper presents a methodology to determine the Value at Risk of warranties for machine tools considering weak data sets and unknown load profiles.
The methodology uses random parameters obtained by different sampling methods to simulate the warranty costs using Monte Carlo simulation.
As result, the Value at Risk of the warranty for a certain probability is determined. The provision of technical services in machine and plant engineering is a profitable field of business for the provider. However, if ambitious availability promises are made, the expenses required in future to deliver the technical service can only be projected with a high level of uncertainty.
This paper presents an approach that shows how the serviceability of a service provider for the maintenance of technical components can be evaluated with low levels of uncertainty, and how the resources used to provide the service can be optimized. The result consists in the determination of a serviceability which represents the correlation between the required resources and the number of identical components in the field. It is derived from the times of service provision, which are adapted to the actual operating and load behavior of the components and takes the sustainable planning and optimization of resources for the respective times of service activities into consideration.
The demand to simultaneously increase the functionality of devices while decreasing their size and weight continuously offers new fields of application for devices like micro gear drives. To fulfill this demand micro gear drives must continue to become smaller and more accurate. This requires, in addition to stable micro manufacturing processes, a quality assurance of the parts of micro gear drives.
A main challenge within the use of micro metrology is the estimation of the uncertainty of measurement of the measurement task to be fulfilled. This article describes an approach for a workpiece resembling standard for experimentally estimating the uncertainty of measurement for micro gears. It shows why such a micro gear standard is required.
Additionally, the article identifies demands on such a standard. Also, a proposal for the structure and the shape of the standard is presented. This includes fabrication possibilities and the choice of appropriate material.
Essential components of the standard are cylindrical geometries to determine the uncertainty of measurement of the characterization of the profile deviation, helix deviation, and pitch deviation. Also, the increasingly recognized importance of entire tooth flanks for the function of the gear is considered for the proposed standard.
Therefore, the standard embodies the surface of an involute tooth flank with the help of the cylindrical geometries to enable the characterization of the entire tooth flank surface. Furthermore, probing strategies for actual measurements with the standard are discussed.
The article concludes with a presentation of future work on the micro gear standard. The prevailing market and competitive situation requires companies to develop and produce their products fast and cost-effective.
To accelerate the development of a new product and its production system a holistic design methodology is developed. Moreover the methodology contains methods which enable decision makers to calculate manufacturing costs per unit and to estimate uncertainties in early planning stages. The developed methods will be implemented in software tools and combined in one common IT infrastructure to guarantee an easy access and a broad acceptance in industrial companies.
The methodology and the appendent software tools are developed within the collaborative research project VireS - Virtual synchronization of product development and production system development. First results have been tested at industry partners and are described in this paper. Die Automobilindustrie steht vor einem grundlegenden Wandel.
Um die weltweite Führungsrolle der deutschen Automobilindustrie zu sichern, muss neben der Entwicklung innovativer Konzepte vor allem die zugehörige Produktionstechnik vorangetrieben werden. Der Vortrag identifiziert wesentliche Herausforderungen und beleuchtet die Aktivitätsfelder Verbrennungsmotor, Elektroantrieb, Speichertechnik und Leichtbau aus produktionstechnischer Sicht.
The increase in the number of product variants is one of the most important challenges of the industry today. It effects almost all departments of a company and is an important cost driver. Therefore, the overall aim of a company is to achieve an optimal degree of flexibility over the whole life cycle of a production system. In early planning stages however the quality and quantity of data is very poor and uncertainties about quantities and variants are challenging.
So far appropriate analyses of costs per parts and as a consequence a monetary based decision between possible production system designs cannot be done. Within the framework of the collaborative research project VireS a scientific approach to evaluate different production scenarios in early planning stages was developed and implemented by the Institute of Production Science wbk of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT.
Using a simulation tool called F-One costs can be calculated depending on ranges of quantities and variants taking different kinds of uncertainties into account. This paper presents two processes for the reconfiguration of global manufacturing networks - one has been developed in Cambridge and one in Karlsruhe. The processes are based on different research contributions and have been tested and refined in industrial companies.
In this paper similarities and differences of the two approaches are identified. It focuses more on the design of network options than on the assessment of these alternatives. The assessment and test of robustness is focused and carried out with ophisticated mathematical tools. Possibilities how both processes might support each other and opportunities for further research are discussed.
Production in international value-added networks is becoming increasingly important. Companies have to handle and control numerous production sites and suppliers of different regional and cultural background to maintain key success factors as for instance cost and quality. To support companies in planning and controlling their value-added networks an approach for the simulation of production networks under consideration of different target systems for each unit in the network, like production plants, suppliers and also relevant decision makers, was developed at the wbk Institute for Production Science.
The unconsidered influences during the implementation phase of network configurations developed with existing simulation and optimization tools are in focus of the approach. Therefore, the simulation model integrates realistic hierarchies, organizational borders and individual target systems. Decision makers in production planning are challenged by volatile markets and the uncertainties coming along with them.
In the presented approach an analytical model of a manufacturing system is defined which takes into account manifold aspects like different routes for each product, stocks, buffers and down-times.
Based on this model the manufacturing system is optimized by a Markovian Decision Process. This dynamic, stochastic optimization helps to find cost minimal reactions to uncertain changes in the markets using capacity adaptations, changes in process steps and in locations. In the last decade, reliability improvement warranties RIW became increasingly popular with customers of machine tool manufacturers especially in the automotive industry.
The long warranty period, the stochastic nature of reliability, unknown operational conditions and uncertainties regarding the reliability parameters of a component bear the risk of cost through high recourses due to low reliability.
The paper shows approaches to lower the risks of high recourses in the bidding process and during operation of machine tools. The methods described in the paper are based on statistical failure analysis with the Weibull distribution and Monte Carlo simulation based warranty prognosis. It is shown that with a good knowledge of the infield reliability of their products, machine tool manufacturers have opportunities to not only calculate but also to lower risks of reliability improvement warranties.
Large manufacturing companies demand reliability and availability warranties from their machine tool and plant suppliers. For these suppliers, however, the estimation of these figures is challenging. The challenges include sparse data availability due to short product life-cycles, low production volumes and high variance of different products, as well as the effect of different operating conditions on reliability.
This presentation will show a practical methodology with which these companies can estimate increasingly trustworthy reliability figures. Furthermore, it will propose a method for assessing the trustability of the figures. The growing demand to reduce environmental impacts has encouraged manufacturers to pursue various green manufacturing technologies and strategies. These solutions, though, may have a direct impact on several productivity metrics including availability, quality, service life, and cost.
This study presents an approach to evaluate the trade-offs between the environmental, performance, and financial impacts of green machining technologies by combining green manufacturing principles into life cycle performance evaluation. The approach is validated by investigating the implications of reducing the processing time by increasing the cutting speed and chip load to green a horizontal milling process.
The estimation of trustable reliability figures for machine tools is a considerable challenge. The proposed paper presents a method to estimate increasingly trustable load-dependent reliability figures for machine tools using design information to estimate the reliability if no field data is given, service knowledge of an existing service department which monitors field maintenance of the products and documented field data of spare parts sales, service and maintenance activities.
The majority of industrial companies has implemented lean production methods to reduce costs and faulty parts, as well as to meet production deadlines. In order to justify the efforts of such an implementation or the adaptation of production systems in a changing, turbulent business environment, approaches forecasting the success with respect to costs including well-known interdependencies of lean production methods are needed.
This paper presents a four-step approach that initially assesses the capability of certain lean production methods, simulates and valuates the effects of such an implementation, and hedges the lean advanced production system against a volatile environment.
Using the proposed approach industrial companies are capable of both assessing increased performance with the help of lean production methods monetarily and of identifying thresholds indicating needed adaptation of a production system. Zur Steigerung der Effizienz bei der Einführung neuer Produkte sowie zur Beherrschung der entstehenden Produktvielfalt müssen Produktentwicklung und Produktionssystemplanung frühzeitig synchronisiert werden.
Dadurch wird versucht, das Spannungsfeld zwischen Qualität, Kosten und Zeit in eine ausgewogene Balance zu bringen. Um unterschiedliche Produktionssystemkonzepte frühzeitig vergleichen und bewerten zu können, ist eine Analyse des Kostenverhaltens im Hinblick auf Schwankungen der prognostizierten Absatzmengen der einzelnen Produkte von hoher Bedeutung.
Neben der Entscheidungsunterstützung bei der Produkt- und Produktionssystemplanung dient eine genaue Kenntnis der Herstellkosten zur Absicherung von strategischen Markt- und Preisentscheidungen. Zulieferer müssen darüber hinaus Jahre vor Produktionsbeginn verbindliche Preiszusagen abgeben, so dass eine möglichst genaue Kenntnis der Herstellkosten zum entscheidenden Wettbewerbsvorteil werden kann.
Concerning Industrial Product Service Systems IPS2 in machine engineering, the challenge for the supplier exists in the determination of the expenses for the provision of the included services over the life cycle of the IPS2 before the start of contract. Thus, in this paper an approach is presented which explains how a supplier of an IPS2, which consists of a machine together with a warranty of availability, can determine his expenses for the warranty. Micro-manufacturing processes are often characterized by unknown correlations between process parameters and quality characteristics.
Due to the large amount of process data a systematic approach is needed. This paper describes an approach to use data mining methods on production data from micro manufacturing processes. A micro powder injection molding process is used as an example to validate the approach and the results of an initial analysis are presented.
An existing database of historical production data from the SFB was thus adapted to grant tolerance-oriented instead of part-oriented production knowledge access.
The new approach was then applied on development of a micro gas turbine. This paper focuses on the manufacturing of microstructures for the enhancement of friction loaded surfaces of a crankshaft. The studied structures are presented and an approach for the quality assurance of the microstructures is explained. This approach is based on the assessment of the neighbourhood distances between the single measurement points within a measurement point cloud and the application of edge detection to classify the detected form deviations.
This paper presents an approach which supports decision making in production planning with uncertainties. In current research there is no integrated view of the strategic planning of production networks and the operational planning of processes within a plant. Consequently this approach consists of two steps. First, the manufacturing costs of units in an embedded manufacturing system are analytically calculated based on queueing theory.
As a second step, a Markovian Decision Process is solved to find cost minimal reactions to volatile markets for the optimization of the manufacturing system due to capacity adaptations, changes in process steps, and locations.
Fiber-reinforced plastics like sheet molding SMC or bulk molding compounds BMC offer the ability to reduce the overall weight of products for individual as well as public transportation concepts like motorcars, buses and trains without decreasing passenger safety.
A fundamental obstacle on the way to lightweight mobility can be seen in the total production costs of fiber-reinforced plastics. Beside the continued automation of the production processes, advanced quality assurance also offers several chances for contributing to cost reduction efforts.
This assessment is processed by the calculation of a quality index and its transformation into the degree of fulfillment. To provide high-class quality technical services to machine and plant clients, machine producers must provide abundant service resources enable adherence to service agreements.
Therefore, this paper defines a dynamic characteristic of the serviceability and shows a method how this characteristic can be predicted and optimized through a simulation of the reliability of machine components. In addition, the implementation of a software package is described and a subsequent case study is presented, that employs the methodology and the simulation of the derived serviceability calculation.
This paper discusses the effects of measurement uncertainty on part inspection and process evaluation, which is especially important for quality assurance in micro-manufacturing. In order to incorporate the effects of measurement uncertainty on process evaluation, the wbk Institute of Production Science has developed two new process capability indices, cpu and cpku, which are adapted from the cp and cpk indices by adjusting the tolerance range according to the expanded uncertainty of measurement.
By doing so, the cpu and cpku indices provide a holistic approach to micro-manufacturing capability in which both the production process and the measurement process are considered as essential elements contributing to the final quality of the product. Daher ist es wichtig dem Konstrukteur Gestaltungshilfen bereitzustellen, da valide Grundlagen zur Gestaltung dieser Bauteile fehlen.
Demzufolge ist es zur Unterstützung des Konstrukteurs wichtig, angepasste bzw. Due to decreasing in-house production depth, industrial companies are becoming part of an increasingly large supply-chain.
To maintain product quality and to protect the company against image problems, crosscompany quality management is becoming a key success factor. Since the applicable approach depends on factors like the power of the single actors in the supply-chain, individual target systems, and product characteristics, companies have to find an individually fitted quality strategy for their supply-chain.
Therefore, a supply-chain model was implemented that simulates the influence of quality problems from tier-n suppliers on company results and the controllability of suppliers by quality management measures using software agents. Since every company has its own performance targets, the individual interest in achieving high punctuality of delivery dates and in controlling other influencing factors like fulfillment of quality requirements may vary between the supply-chain entities.
To maintain high delivery punctuality and eliminate delays due to quality issues, cross-company balancing of target discrepancies and quality management is becoming a key success factor. Given that an applicable approach depends on factors like the power of the single actors in the network, individual target systems, and product characteristics, companies have to find an individually fitted strategy to control their supply-chain.
Therefore, an agent-based supply-chain model was implemented to simulate the behavior of supply-chain entities related to their target systems, the influence of quality problems from tiern suppliers on company results and the controllability of suppliers by incentives and quality management measures. Technological variety and dynamics require flexibility of scales and beyond that high modularity in order to be able to react to modified process steps by means of product- or production-related innovations.
In order to position yourself successfully in the market of machine tools and plants, it is important to gain an advantage over your competition by using novel concepts in the service sector, for example the spare part provision strategies. The proprietary service structure must therefore be assessable. An effective adduction therefore requires a well-grounded planning methodology that facilitates economic progress.
This presentation shows a systematic and practical approach to spare part provision at optimal cost, which is based on the structural data of the machines in the field, their operation conditions and their failure data. Through statistical reliability analysis and the integration of load impacts, a more precise prognosis of the spare parts demand can be achieved. The resulting choice of the optimal spare part provision strategy forms the essential part of the presented methodology.
Due to the decreasing in-house production depth and the ongoing trend to internationalization, manufacturing companies are becoming a part of increasingly large supply chains. As a result, the influence of the individual companies on the quality of their products decreases. As quality is one of the key success factors for a manufacturing company,cross-company quality management is becoming more important.
Thus, companies need to identify an individually fitted quality strategy for their supply chain in a systematic way. Therefore, a holistic method has been developed to identify relevant quality parameters for a specific company systematically. Global business activities of companies grow continuously because cost savings must be achieved and new markets must be tapped into.
These products must not only be adjusted to the individual requirements of the customer but must also realise cost reduction potentials. Such an investment project in the form of product adaptations has to be calculated and evaluated at an early stage.
This paper presents an approach to use the real option analysis in order to include uncertainties and flexibility during the development phase. Using this approach industrial companies are capable to identify the cause and effect relationships between product design and production technology adaptations, to calculate the costs of these adaptations and to evaluate the investment project regarding uncertainties and flexibility.
Integral, global sourcing processes covering everything from procurement portfolio analysis to supplier development for qualification as a series supplier provide companies with a solid basis to capitalise on cost-based and competitive advantages. The approach developed at wbk Institute of Production Science is particularly suitable for small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs.
Using the approach, companies will be able to select low-cost country LCC procurement objects based on quality criteria and to evaluate LCC supplier development on a dynamical basis. By focusing on core competencies and the utilization of international location advantages such as access to low-wage labor and local sales markets, global production networks are becoming increasingly complex.
The key for control is a changeable production network that can change within preconceived solution spaces for the dynamic challenges. The presented article describes an approach for the strategic planning of global changeable production networks, based on future scenarios and a multi-objective optimization to identify the most favorable network configuration. The final result is a production network, which can be changed into network alternatives to control dynamics and positively utilize globalization.
Sustainable individual mobility can only be achieved by reducing the CO2 emissions. Solutions therefore can be found in the reduction of the moving mass of the entire system.
The demand for weight reduction is not a challenge that is only considered because of the trend towards the development of electric vehicles.
Weight reduction is also forced by new regulations by the EU and other countries which aim to reduce CO2 emissions of the OEMs car-fleets. Besides of light metal structures fiber reinforced plastics FRP are a material group which is suitable for lightweight design. Because of this FRP are already used in high-priced products. The reason for the limited distribution in high volume productions, like the automotive industry is mostly because of the low automation rate and the high production costs.
For the high volume production of high-strength fiber composites the liquid composite molding processes LCM has the highest potential. Within this process the degree of automation has to be increased. Therefor the aim must be to produce under the premises of automation, short cycle times and high reproducibility. Here, the press-based RTM process has the highest potential.
Within the RTM process chain, the draping process is the central process step which has to be developed. The aim for the draping process therefore lies in overcoming the challenges which arise between a full automated process and a high component quality which suits the requirements for high performance structural components.
In addition, general obsolescence allowances are applied, staggered by inventory movements; individual impairments are effected for. If the weightings in the market shift through the ramping up of production capacities accompanied by declining demand, the result is an excess supply of modules, falling prices and excess inventories which continue to lose their value. Der Disponent in der Filiale.
Using the intraday monitoring function, the order writer in the store can directly react to imminent excess stocks or lost sales in the fresh product assortment with suitable measures such as advertising, pricing adjustments or revision of existing orders," explains Udo Meyzis, CEO of SAF, the advantages of this joint solution approach. Most frequent English dictionary requests: Please click on the reason for your vote: This is not a good example for the translation above.
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