Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp complex
The Germans destroyed much of the camp's files and evidence and often gave newly arrived prisoners the camp numbers of those who had already been killed,  so the exact death toll of Mauthausen and its subcamps is impossible to calculate. In early , many Poles were transferred to the Mauthausen—Gusen complex. This along with the? Commander of U  .
Translation of «Verkaufspunkt» into 25 languages
Commander of U  . Chief of the 8. Ia operations officer of the 1. Commander of U  . Combat observer in the 6. Zugführer platoon leader in the II. Zugführer platoon leader in the 7. Geschwaderkommodore of Kampfgeschwader 3 "Lützow"  [Note 42]. Pilot and observer in the 2. Pilot in the Stab of I. Chief of the 6. Zugführer platoon leader in Panzer-Aufklärungs-Abteilung " Brandenburg "  . Zugführer platoon leader in the 3.
Leader of Grenadier-Regiment  . Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  . Commander of Grenadier-Regiment 89  . Company troop leader in the 7. Commander of Aufklärungs-Abteilung 17  . Staffelführer of the 1. Commander of U  .
Leader of Alarm-Bataillon Kolberg . Staffelkapitän of the 6. Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  . Artilleriekommandeur 6 and leader of a Kampfgruppe  [Note 53].
Commander of Panzergrenadier-Bataillon  . Pilot in the I. Leader of the III. Chief of the 7. Chief of the 4. Commander of Infanterie-Regiment 51 motorized  . Chief of the 5. Chief engineer on U  . Commander of Flak-Regiment motorized  [Note 57]. Commander of U  . Landungsdivision and sea transportation chief of the Strait of Messina  . Abschnittskommandant sector commander in the fortress St. Leader of Fallschirmjäger-Regiment 23  .
Squadron chief in the 8. Deputy leader of Jäger-Regiment  [Note 60]. Group leader in Panzer-Pionier-Bataillon 93  [Note 64]. Commander of Panzer-Aufklärungs-Abteilung 33  . Zugführer platoon leader in the 2. Staffelkapitän of the Zugführer platoon leader of the II. Chief of the 3. Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  . Pak gun leader in the 1.
Commander of Grenadier-Regiment . Reconnaissance troop leader in the 1. Commander of battleship Bismarck  . Commander of Infanterie-Regiment  . Tasked with the leadership of the 1.
Chief of staff of the IX. Commander of Jäger-Regiment . Adjutant in the III. Zugführer platoon leader and aide-de-camp in the II. Höherer Artilleriekommandeur  . Pilot in the 7. Staffelkapitän of the 7. Zugführer platoon leader in the 9.
Group leader in the 6. Zugführer platoon leader in the Commander of the Heeres-Pionier-Bataillon 44 motorized  [Note 78]. Staffelführer of the Gruppenkommandeur of the I. Pilot in the Staffelführer of the 6. Battalion leader in Fallschirmjäger-Regiment "Hübner"  [Note 83]. Pilot in the 4. Commander of Panzer-Regiment 31  . Gruppenkommandeur of the II. Company leader in Feldersatz-Bataillon 94  . Commander-in-chief of the Geschwaderkommodore of Kampfgeschwader 30  .
Staffelkapitän in the I. Zugführer platoon leader in the 4. Chief of Luftflotte 4  . Infanterie-Division  [Note 93]. Infanterie-Division motorized  . Adjutant in the Panzer-Aufklärungs-Abteilung  .
Commanding general of the II. Rifle leader in the Commander of Infanterie-Regiment  . Company troop messenger in the 3. Richtschütze gunner in the 1. Commander of SS-Kavallerie-Regiment 1  . Staffelführer of the 8.
Gun leader in the Commander of Gebirgsjäger-Regiment  . Aide-de-camp of the 7. Commander of Infanterie-Regiment  .
Geschwaderkommodore of Jagdgeschwader 51 "Mölders"  . Battery chief in the I. Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  . Observer in the 2. Leader of Panzergrenadier-Regiment  . Gun leader in the 3. Commander of the 2. Flak-Division motorized  [Note ]. Commander of Infanterie-Regiment 83  .
Pilot in the 9. Leader of the 8. Commander of U  . Leader of the 2. Vorgeschobener Beobachter forward observer in Artillerie-Regiment  . Battery officer in the 6. Although the Mauthausen camp complex was mostly a labour camp for men, a women's camp was opened in Mauthausen, in September , with the first transport of female prisoners from Auschwitz.
Along with the female prisoners came some female guards; twenty are known to have served in the Mauthausen camp, and sixty in the whole camp complex. Female guards also staffed the Mauthausen subcamps at Hirtenberg , Lenzing the main women's subcamp in Austria , and Sankt Lambrecht. Almost all the female Overseers who served in Mauthausen were recruited from Austrian cities and towns between September and November In early April , at least 2, more female prisoners came from the female subcamps at Amstetten , St.
Lambrecht , Hirtenberg, and the Flossenbürg subcamp at Freiberg. The available Mauthausen inmate statistics  from the spring of , shows that there were 2, prisoners below the age of 20, which was By late March , the number of juvenile prisoners in Mauthausen increased to 15,, which was The number of imprisoned children increased 6.
These numbers reflected the increasing use of Polish, Czech, Russian, and Balkan teenagers as slave labour as the war continued. There were also 23 Romani children, 20 so-called "anti-social elements", six Spaniards, and three Jehovah's Witnesses.
Mauthausen was not the only concentration camp where the German authorities implemented their extermination through labour Vernichtung durch Arbeit programme, but the regime at Mauthausen was one of the most brutal and severe. The conditions within the camp were considered exceptionally hard to bear, even by concentration camp standards. The reasons for sending them to work in the "punishment detail" were trivial, and included such "crimes" as not saluting a German passing by.
Despite the fact that roughly medics from among the inmates were working there,  they were not given any medication and could offer only basic first aid. The rock quarry in Mauthausen was at the base of the "Stairs of Death".
As a result, many exhausted prisoners collapsed in front of the other prisoners in the line, and then fell on top of the other prisoners, creating a domino effect ; the first prisoner falling onto the next, and so on, all the way down the stairs.
Such brutality was not accidental. The SS guards would often force prisoners — exhausted from hours of hard labour without sufficient food and water — to race up the stairs carrying blocks of stone. Those who survived the ordeal would often be placed in a line-up at the edge of a cliff known as "The Parachutists Wall" German: The Nazis also performed pseudo-scientific experiments on the prisoners.
Heim was dubbed "Doctor Death" by the inmates; he was in Gusen for seven weeks, which was enough to carry out his experiments. After the war one of the survivors, Dr. While the food rations were increasingly limited every month, the heavy industry necessitated skilled specialists rather than unqualified workers and the brutality of the camp's SS and Kapos was limited.
While the prisoners were still beaten on a daily basis and the Muselmänner were still exterminated, from early on some of the factory workers were allowed to receive food parcels from their families mostly Poles and Frenchmen. This allowed many of them not only to evade the risk of starvation, but also to help other prisoners who had no relatives outside the camps — or who were not allowed to receive parcels.
In February , the camp was the site of Nazi war crime Mühlviertler Hasenjagd "hare hunt" where around escaped prisoners mostly Soviet officers were mercilessly hunted down and murdered by SS, local law enforcement and civilians.
The Germans destroyed much of the camp's files and evidence and often gave newly arrived prisoners the camp numbers of those who had already been killed,  so the exact death toll of Mauthausen and its subcamps is impossible to calculate.
The matter is further complicated due to some of the inmates of Gusen being murdered in Mauthausen, and at least 3, were sent to Hartheim Castle, Also, several thousands were killed in mobile gas chambers, without any mention of the exact number of victims in the remaining files. During the first days after the liberation, the camp's main chancellery was seized by the members of a Polish inmate resistance organization; they secured it against the wishes of other inmates who wanted to burn it.
The surviving camp archives include personal files of 37, murdered prisoners, including 22, Poles, 5, Spaniards, 2, Soviet prisoners of war and 7, inmates of 24 other nationalities. Apart from the surviving camp files of the subcamps of Mauthausen, the main documents used for an estimation of the death toll of the camp complexes are:. As a result of these factors, the exact death toll of the entire system of Mauthausen and its subcamps varies considerably from source to source.
Various scholars place it at between , [note 9] and ,,  with other numbers also frequently quoted being ,  and "over ,". Out of approximately , prisoners who were incarcerated in various subcamps of Mauthausen throughout the war, only approximately 80, survived,  including between 20,  and 21,  [note 11] in Gusen I, II and III. Bodies being removed by German civilians for burial, after the liberation of the Gusen concentration camp.
Several Norwegian Waffen SS volunteers worked as guards or as instructors for prisoners from Nordic countries , according to senior researcher Terje Emberland at the Center for Studies of Holocaust and Religious Minorities. During the final months before liberation, the camp's commander Franz Ziereis prepared for its defence against a possible Soviet offensive.
The remaining prisoners were rushed to build a line of granite anti-tank obstacles to the east of Mauthausen. The inmates unable to cope with the hard labour and malnutrition were exterminated in large numbers to free space for newly arrived evacuation transports from other camps, including most of the subcamps of Mauthausen located in eastern Austria. In the final months of the war, the main source of dietary energy, that is the parcels of food sent through the International Red Cross, stopped and food rations became catastrophically low.
The prisoners transferred to the "Hospital Subcamp" received one piece of bread per 20 inmates and roughly half a litre of weed soup a day. It is not known why the prisoners of Gusen I and II were not exterminated en-masse , despite direct orders from Heinrich Himmler to murder them and prevent the use of their workforce by the Allies. On 28 April, under cover of a fictional air-raid alarm, some 22, prisoners of Gusen were rushed into the tunnels.
Ziereis himself stated in his testimony written on 25 May that it was his wife who convinced him not to follow the order from above. A similar plan was also devised by the Spanish inmates. On 3 May the SS and other guards started to prepare for evacuation of the camp. The following day, the guards of Mauthausen were replaced with unarmed Volkssturm soldiers and an improvised unit formed of elderly police officers and fire fighters evacuated from Vienna.
The police officer in charge of the unit accepted the "inmate self-government" as the camp's highest authority and Martin Gerken , until then the highest-ranking kapo prisoner in the Gusen's administration in the rank of Lagerälteste , or the Camp's Elder , became the new de facto commander. He attempted to create an International Prisoner Committee that would become a provisional governing body of the camp until it was liberated by one of the approaching armies, but he was openly accused of co-operation with the SS and the plan failed.
On 1 May the inmates were rushed on a death march towards Sankt Georgen , but were ordered to return to the camp after several hours. The operation was repeated the following day, but called off soon afterwards. The following day, the SS guards deserted the camp, leaving the prisoners to their fate. The reconnaissance squad was led by Staff Sergeant Albert J. By the time of its liberation, most of the SS-men of Mauthausen had already fled; around 30 who were remained were killed by the prisoners,  and a similar number were killed in Gusen II.
Future Medal of Honor recipient Tibor "Ted" Rubin was imprisoned there as a young teenager; a Hungarian Jew, he vowed to join the US Army upon his liberation and later did just that, distinguishing himself in the Korean War as a corporal in the 8th Cavalry Regiment , 1st Cavalry Division.
Following the capitulation of Germany, Mauthausen fell within the Soviet sector of occupation of Austria. At the same time, the underground factories were being dismantled and sent to the USSR as a war booty.
After that, between and , the camps were unguarded and many furnishings and facilities of the camp were dismantled, both by the Red Army and by the local population. In the early summer of , the Soviet forces had blown up the tunnels and were then withdrawn from the area, while the camp was turned over to Austrian civilian authorities.
Mauthausen was declared a national memorial site in Bruno Kreisky , the Chancellor of Austria , officially opened the Mauthausen Museum on 3 May , 30 years after the camp's liberation.
The Mauthausen site remains largely intact, but much of what constituted the subcamps of Gusen I, II and III is now covered by residential areas built after the war. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from KZ Mauthausen. List of subcamps of Mauthausen. List of Mauthausen and Gusen inmates. Floor plan of the "execution cellar" at Mauthausen, with the location of the cremation ovens.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Selbstbedienung mechanische Registrierkasse m". Ziel der informations- technischen Modernisierung ist es daher, den Kunden gezielter und schneller an den Verkaufspunkt heranzuführen. Eine solche Marketingphilosophie wird von national und international tätigen Han- delsagenturen, die Bei den nicht-stationären primären Betriebsformen handelt es sich um solche, die keinen festen Verkaufspunkt haben. Ein weiterer Kursanstieg würde dann Der Verkaufspunkt befindet sich dann an der Brücke Löbenhainer Waldweg.
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